Research project: Choreometrics in international mediation
Purpose — To provide a framework of choreometrics in mediation in order to create conducive environments for peacemaking and peacebuilding in mediated talks.
Approach – Multiple methods of qualitative research including personal interviews, narrative analysis, discourse analysis, coordinated management of meaning (CMM) and body movements in order to discuss the use of non-verbal techniques and technologies to prepare the mediated talks. Case studies from the Philippines, the Sudan, and Mali (where the author participated as mediation adviser) will provide the entry point for further exploration.
Findings – To learn that appropriate and proper preparation of the mediation room in highly volatile environments (cease fire) is contributing to a positive trajectory of mediated talks.
Research Limitations — The initial sample group will be small and not necessarily representative. There is a dearth of literature available, focusing heavily on dance therapy and the ‘Local’, yet no elevated to the level of international peacemaking.
Added value – The exploration of the linkages between dance, identity, political mediation, and the general multi-disciplinary approach has not been done to this day. The research will provide synergies between different scholars and practitioners and lead to furthering the story-telling aspect of research, while at the same time proffering a matrix/template of activities in order to foster a mediation environment conducive to peaceful outcomes.
In the period between November and December 2014, I was part of a mediation support team, supporting the lead joint mediators of United Nations Special Envoy Haile Menkerios and African Union High Level Implementation Panel Thabo Mbeki. Part of the activity was to provide input to delegates from various groupings, forming the Sudanese Revolutionary Front (SRF) in Darfur, Sudan. The goal was to increase and strengthen delegations understanding of ceasefire modalities before engaging in negotiations with delegates from the Government of Sudan (GoS). While I typically start similar types of activities by making use of traditional workshop activities, such as frontal teaching, breaking up into group work, and then reconvening for an input session, I decided to deviate from the previously designed plan and to launch into an immersive exercise. The structure is to break down participants into 3 equal sized groups, with three different set of instructions. The game is to move all the available chairs in the conference room into specific settings. None of the groups are allowed to share their instructions nor to talk about it during the exercise. The exercise starts with the task to pull all the chairs according to the instructions given to the three groups and to continue the exercise until all the available chairs have been placed according to the tasks. Typically, and in almost all the situations I had to use the exercise, participants engaged into competitive modes of getting results, subduing other groups. While there is an initial spike in violent behavior, groups tire quickly, and then engage into positional bargaining with interesting outcomes. Out of 15 activities within the past 3 years, possibly only 1 training came to a collaborative conclusion of the activity. This outcome gave rise to further questions in mediation preparation: What moves are conducive to effective entry into the mediated process? What contextual information and environment filters mediation moves? Can the preparation of the mediation environment be linked to successful outcomes?
We do not know enough about how people communicate in different kinds of environments, and “negotiate” their differences despite different forms of communication, nor about how we obtain and organize the information needed to communicate appropriately and build agendas across languages and cultures. In order to address these issues, we need to learn about some of the institutional contexts within which international negotiations can occur and the local settings in which face-to-face communication takes place. Terms like communication, verbal and nonverbal expressions, agendas, language, culture, symbols, meaning, channels of information, problem solving, and negotiating strategies all presuppose historical conditions, knowledge about these conditions, and local circumstances within which negotiations occur. However, there is a dearth of research on cognitive, linguistic, and organizational dimensions of international mediation. And while practitioners agree that the setting of a negotiation room is either conducive or inhibiting creative problem-solving, the majority of the research done within the field of international negotiation dates from the 1970s-1980s. The formal literature on decision making seldom if ever includes a description of day-to-day settings. Even those who contest the rational model and examine cognitive biases and heuristics do not pay attention to the way choices are identified and examined in larger institutional contexts (e. g. Axelrod, 1976; Tversky and Kahneman, 1971; Slovic and Lichtenstein, 1968; Slovic, Fischoff, and Lichtenstein, 1976). The study of negotiations inevitably requires the examination of the discourse of preparing for and conducting negotiations, and the documents that are supposed to represent policy guidelines and summarize the events that took place. There are several perspectives available for the analysis of discourse and textual materials. The various approaches overlap and borrow from each other, but the general term used to refer to them is often “discourse analysis” (DA) as developed by linguists and others who have sought to go beyond a sentence-based analysis of language. A related view, conversation analysis (CA), was developed by sociologists and psychologists who have stressed the local, emergent nature of
everyday exchanges. An older view, the ethnography of speaking (ES), was developed by anthropological linguists in order to focus on the ethnographic functions of narrative speech and discourse for understanding face-to-face contacts in fairly self-contained communities or tribes.
This current research proposal aims to remedy the lack of further exploration of language, power, conflict and solidarity in a new geopolitical context of non-state armed actors, functioning outside of bureaucracies, and therefore outside of the scope of earlier research.
Akin-Little, A. (2009). Behavioral interventions in schools : Evidence-based positive strategies (1st ed.). Washington, DC: Americaychological Association. http://bvbr.bib-bvb.de:8991/F?func=service&doc_library=BVB01&doc_number=017758270&line_number=0001&func_code=DB_RECORDS&service_type=MEDIA
Altman, I., Rapoport, A., & Wohlwill, J. F. (1980). Environment and culture (Human
behavior and environment, v. 4; Human behavior and environment, v. 4). New York: Plenum Press.
Altman, I. (1975). The environment and social behavior : Privacy, personal space, territory, crowding. Monterey, Calif.: Brooks/Cole Pub. Co..
Axelrod, R. ( 1976 ). “The cognitive mapping approach to decision making.” in Structure of Decision: the cognitive maps of political elites, ed. R. Axelrod. Princeton: Princeton University Press: 3-17.
Baum, A., & Koman, S. (1976). Differential response to anticipated crowding:
Psychological effects of social and spatial density. Journal Of Personality And Social Psychology, 34(3), 526-536. doi:10.1037/0022-3522.214.171.1246
Baldassare, M., & Feller, S. (1975). Cultural Variations in Personal Space : Theory,
Methods, and Evidence. Ethos, 3(4), 481-503. doi:10.1525/eth.1975.3.4.02a00020
Bartholomew, R. (1974). Crowding and human behavior: The effect on physical space
design (Council of Planning Librarians. Exchange bibliography, 564; Council of Planning Librarians, 564). Monticello, Ill..
Beausoleil, E., & LeBaron, M. (2013). What Moves Us: Dance and Neuroscience
Implications for Conflict Approaches. Conflict Resolution Quarterly, 31(2), 133-158. doi:10.1002/crq.21086
Benes, K. M., Gutkin, T. B., & Kramer, J. J. (1991). Micro-Analysis of Consultant and
Consultee Verbal and Nonverbal Behaviors. Journal Of Educational And Psychological Consultation, 2(2), 133-149.
Bente, G., Senokozlieva, M., Pennig, S., Al-Issa, A., & Fischer, O. (2008). Deciphering
the secret code: A new methodology for the cross-cultural analysis of nonverbal behavior. Behavior Research Methods, 40(1), 269-277. doi:10.3758/BRM.40.1.269
BURGOON, J. K., & JONES, S. B. (1976). TOWARD A THEORY OF PERSONAL SPACE
EXPECTATIONS AND THEIR VIOLATIONS. Human Communication Research, 2(2), 131-146. doi:10.1111/j.1468-2958.1976.tb00706.x
Cacioppo, J. T., & Berntson, G. G. (1994). Relationship between attitudes and evaluative
space: A critical review, with emphasis on the separability of positive and negative substrates. Psychological Bulletin, 115(3), 401-423. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.115.3.401
Calvard, T. S. (2015). INTEGRATING ORGANIZATION STUDIES AND COMMUNITY
PSYCHOLOGY: A PROCESS MODEL OF AN ORGANIZING SENSE OF PLACE IN WORKING LIVES. Journal Of Community Psychology, 43(6), 654-686. doi:10.1002/jcop.21754
Crane J, & Crane FG. (2010). Optimal nonverbal communications strategies
physicians should engage in to promote positive clinical outcomes. Health Marketing Quarterly, 27(3), 262-74. doi:10.1080/07359683.2010.495300
Dancing in the Millennium, Willis, J., LaPointe-Crump, J. D., Dance Critics Association
(U.S.), Congress on Research in Dance, Society of Dance History Scholars (U.S.), & National Dance Association. (2000). Dancing in the Millennium : An international conference : proceedings : July 19-23, 2000, Washington Marriott Hotel, George Washington University, Kennedy Center, Washington, DC.
Davis, M., Walters, S. B., Vorus, N., & Connors, B. (2000). Defensive Demeanor
Profiles. American Journal Of Dance Therapy, 22(2), 103-121. doi:10.1023/A:1026582324633
Dunphy, K., Elton, M., & Jordan, A. (2014). Exploring Dance/Movement Therapy in
Post-Conflict Timor-Leste. American Journal Of Dance Therapy : Publication Of The American Dance Therapy Association, 36(2), 189-208. doi:10.1007/s10465-014-9175-4
Frank, Priscilla. (2015, March 3). How One Former Marine Used Ballet To Spread
Veterans’ Stories Around The World. Retrieved from: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2015/03/03/roman-baca-dance_n_6753020.html
Gordon-Giles, N., & Zidan, W. (2009). Assessing the Beyond Words Educational Model
for Empowering Women, Decreasing Prejudice and Enhancing Empathy. American Journal Of Dance Therapy, 31(1), 20-52. doi:10.1007/s10465-009-9069-z
Gray, A. E. L. (2001). The Body Remembers: Dance/Movement Therapy with an Adult
Survivor of Torture. American Journal Of Dance Therapy, 23(1), 29-43. doi:10.1023/A:1010780306585
Hall, E. T. (1990). The hidden dimension. New York: Anchor Books.
Hannah, Ryan. (2013). The Effect of Classroom Environment on Student Learning.
(Honors Thesis) Retrieved from: http://scholarworks.wmich.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=3380&context=honors_theses
Harris, D.A. (2010). A postscript to Pathways to embodied empathy and reconciliation:
Former boy soldiers in a dance/movement therapy group in Sierra Leone. Website: Child Soldiers International psychosocial forum: http://www.child-soldiers.org/psychosocial_archive.php
Harris D.A. (2010). When child soldiers reconcile: Accountability, restorative justice,
and the renewal of empathy. Journal Of Human Rights Practice, 2(3), 334-354. doi:10.1093/jhuman/huq015
Harris, D.A. (2009, June 15). Dance and Child Soldiers: Dance/movement therapy can
help child soldiers deal with trauma and postwar reconciliation. Retrieved from: http://fpif.org/dance_and_child_soldiers/
Harris, D.A. (2009). The paradox of expressing speechless terror: Ritual liminality in the
creative arts therapies’ treatment of posttraumatic distress. The Arts in Psychotherapy. 36(2), 94-104.
Harris, D.A. (2007). Pathways to embodied empathy and reconciliation: Former boy
soldiers in a dance/movement therapy group in Sierra Leone. Intervention: International Journal of Mental Health, Psychosocial Work and Counselling in Areas of Armed Conflict, 5(3), 203-231.
Harris DA. (2007). Dance/movement therapy approaches to fostering resilience and
recovery among African adolescent torture survivors. Torture : Quarterly Journal On Rehabilitation Of Torture Victims And Prevention Of Torture, 17(2), 134-55.
Harris, D.A. (2006). Dance/movement therapy with former child soldiers in Sierra
Leone. Proceedings of the American Dance Therapy Association 41st Annual Conference, Long Beach, CA. CD-Rom.
Harris, D.A. (2003). Remaking the world: Dance/movement therapy with survivors of
torture and war. Proceedings of the American Dance Therapy Association 38th
Annual Conference, Denver, CO. CD-Rom.
Harris, D.A. (2002). Mobilizing to Empower and Restore: Dance/Movement Therapy
with Children Affected by War and Organized Violence. Unpublished master’s thesis. MCP Hahnemann University [now a division of Drexel University], Philadelphia, PA.
Harris, Guy. (2016). Conflict De-escalation Strategies: Control Your Tine and Body
Language. Retrieved from: http://recoveringengineer.com/resolving-conflict/conflict-de-escalation-strategies-control-your-tone-and-body-language/
Hauert, C., & Doebeli, M. (2004). Spatial structure often inhibits the evolution of
cooperation in the snowdrift game. Nature, 428(6983), 643-6. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/204536367?accountid=14696
Heifetz-Yahav, D. (2005). Choreographing Otherness: Ethnochoreology and
Peacekeeping Research, presented at First International Congress of Qualitative Inquiry, Urbana, Illinois 2005. Retrieved from http://www.iiqi.org/C4QI/httpdocs/qi2005/papers/heifetz.pdf
Heifetz-Yahav, D. (2004). Non-Mediated Peacekeeping: The Case of Israeli–Palestinian
Security Cooperation. Small Wars & Insurgencies, 15(2), 77-130. doi:10.1080/0959231042000282643
Hern, W. M. (1991). Proxemics: The application of theory to conflict arising from
antiabortion demonstrations. Population And Environment : A Journal Of Interdisciplinary Studies, 12(4), 379-388. doi:10.1007/BF01566306
Honeyman, C., Coben, J., & Lee, A. W.-M. (2013). Educating negotiators for a
connected world (Rethinking negotiation teaching series, v. 4; Rethinking negotiation teaching series, v. 4). Saint Paul, Minn.: DRI Press. http://digitalcommons.hamline.edu/dri_press/5/
Johnson, D. W., & Johnson, R. T.. (1996). Conflict Resolution and Peer Mediation
Programs in Elementary and Secondary Schools: A Review of the Research. Review of Educational Research, 66(4), 459–506. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org.proxy-um.researchport.umd.edu/stable/1170651
Kanyako, V. (2015). Arts and War Healing:Peacelinks Performing Arts in Sierra Leone.
African Conflict And Peace Building Review, 5(1), 106-122.
Koshland, L., Wilson, J., & Wittaker, B. (2004). PEACE Through Dance/Movement:
Evaluating a Violence Prevention Program. American Journal Of Dance Therapy, 26(2), 69-90.
Krycka, K. C. (2012). Peace-building from the inside. Indo-Pacific Journal Of
Phenomenology, 12, 1-13.
Israel Lieblich and Michael A. Arbib (1982). Multiple representations of space
underlying behavior. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 5, pp 627-640 doi:10.1017/S0140525X00013959
LeBaron, M., MacLeod, C., & Acland, A. F. (2013). The choreography of resolution :
Conflict, movement, and neuroscience. Chicago, Illinois: American Bar Association, Section of Dispute Resolution.
LeBaron, M. (2012). Thinking with the Body: Addressing Conflict from the Inside Out.
OMA Conference, Portland, Oregon, November 2012.
McCall, C., Blascovich, J., Young, A., & Persky, S. (2009). Proxemic behaviors as
predictors of aggression towards Black (but not White) males in an immersive virtual environment. Social Influence, 4(2), 138-154. doi:10.1080/15534510802517418
Mitchell, A., & Kelly, L. (2011). Peaceful Spaces? “Walking” through the New Liminal
Spaces of Peacebuilding and Development in North Belfast. Alternatives: Global, Local, Political, 36(4), 307-325.
Müller-Mahn, D. (2012). The Spatial Dimension of Risk: How Geography Shapes the
Emergence of Riskscapes (Earthscan Risk in Society; Earthscan Risk in Society). Hoboken: Taylor and Francis. http://public.eblib.com/choice/publicfullrecord.aspx?p=1092768
Powell, R. (2010). Spaces of Informalisation: Playscapes, Power and the Governance
of Behaviour. Space And Polity, 14(2), 189-206.
Rommel, C. (2011). Playing with difference: football as a performative space for
division among Suryoye migrants in Sweden. Soccer & Society, 12(6), 850-864. doi:10.1080/14660970.2011.609684
Schofield, Ana. (2004, March). Body Language in Mediation Including Recuperation
Patterns during Work Cycles for Mediators. Retrieved from: http://www.mediate.com/articles/schofielda2.cfm
Shank, M., & Schirch, L. (2008). Strategic Arts-Based Peacebuilding. Peace & Change,
33(2), 217-242. doi:10.1111/j.1468-0130.2008.00490.x
Skov, Sydney. (2013) When Dance Saves Lives: The Kolkata Sanved Approach to
Moving Against Human Trafficking. Brandeis University. [Case Study].
Slachmuijlder, Lena. (2005) The Rhythm of Reconciliation: A reflection on drumming as a contribution to reconciliation process in Burundi and South Africa. Retrieved from Brandeis University, Peacebuilding and the Arts Website: http://www.brandeis.edu/ethics/peacebuildingarts/pdfs/peacebuildingarts/lena%20 rhythm_of_reconciliation.pdf
Slovic, P., Fischhoff, B., and Lichtenstein, S. (1976). “Cognitive processes and societal risk taking.” In Cognilion and social behavior, ed. J. s. Carroll alld J. W. Payne. Hillsdale, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Slovic, P., and Lichtenstein, S. (1968). “Relative importance cff probabilities and payotls in risk taking.’Journal of Experimental Psychology, monograph 78, 3, Part I1: 1-18.
Sommer, R. (1969). Personal space; the behavioral basis of design (A Spectrum book; Spectrum book). Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall.
Sports Conflict Institute. (2016). Retrieved from: http://sportsconflict.org/
Staub, E. (1984). Development and maintenance of prosocial behavior : International perspectives on positive morality (Critical issues in social justice; Critical issues in social justice). New York: Plenum Press. http://digitool.hbz-nrw.de:1801/webclient/DeliveryManager?pid=3717271
Steele, Mariah. (2011) Performing Past, Present and Possibilities in Irish Modern
Dance Theatre’s “Fall and Recover:” A Case for Using Dance in Peacebuilding. (Master’s Thesis) Tufts Digital Library. Tufts:UA015.012.079.00007
Steinbruner, J. D. (1975). The cybernetic theory of decision. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Stoiber, K. C., & Gettinger, M. (2011). Functional Assessment and Positive
Support Strategies for Promoting Resilience: Effects on Teachers and High-Risk Children. Psychology In The Schools, 48(7), 686-706.
Tesch, F. E., Huston, T. L., & Indenbaum, E. A. (1973). Attitude Similarity, Attraction, and Physical Proximity In a Dynamic Space¹. Journal Of Applied Social Psychology, 3(1), 63-72. doi:10.1111/j.1559-1816.1973.tb01295.x
Ting-toomey, S. (1998). Facework competence in intercultural conflict: an updated face-
negotiation theory. International Journal Of Intercultural Relations, 22(2), 187-225. doi:10.1016/S0147-1767(98)00004-2
Tricia S. Jones, Martin S. Remland, (1993) NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION AND
CONFLICT ESCALATION: AN ATTRIBUTION‐BASED MODEL, International Journal of Conflict Management, Vol. 4 Iss: 2, pp.119 – 137. doi:1108/eb022723
Tversky, A., and Kahneman, D. ( 1971 ). “Belief in the law of small numbers?” Psychological Bulletin 76: 105-110.
Waisman, O. S. (2010). Body, language and meaning in conflict situations : A semiotic analysis of gesture-word mismatches in Israeli-Jewish and Arab discourse (Studies in functional and structural linguistics, v. 62; Studies in functional and structural linguistics, v. 62). Amsterdam: John Benjamins Pub. Co..
Warner, Judith. (1997). Aikido and Conflict Resolution. Retrieved from:
Wolfe B. (1974). Letter: A discussion of “proxemics in deviant adolescents”. Journal
Of Consulting And Clinical Psychology, 42(5), 749-50. doi:10.1037/h0037081
World Dance Alliance Global Summit, Bambaggi, J., & Gardner, S. (2014).
Contemporising the past : Envisaging the future. Angers: CNDC.